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  Definitions
  Abbreviations
  References
 
Human Allograft Bone - Bone procured from a donor patient for grafting onto another patient in need of bone grafting.
The use of Allograft or “banked” bone obviates the need for harvesting of autologous bone. Fresh frozen or gamma-irradiated
bone still contains BMP’s and is therefore both osteoinductive and osteoconductive.

Autologous Bone - patient’s own bone normally harvested by creating a second wound on the patient’s illiac crest.
This is often the source of more discomfort to the patient than the primary operation site. This is, however, the ideal bone graft
since it contains BMP’s as well as live osteoblasts.

Heterogenous bone grafts - Xenografts or heterografts are supplied by a non-human subject, usually animals eg. Bovine surgibone. It may also come from another source eg. Coral grafts. These grafts undergo treatment to reduce any inherent antigenic properties. There are no BMP’s present in these grafts. They are not osteo-inductive, only osteoconductive.

Lyophilisation - process of rapid freezing of bone grafts to below -75°C by direct sublimation of ice under vacuum.
Freeze-drying destroys DNA that can initiate an immune response in recipients. Moisture is simultaneously extracted from the grafts.
This whole process takes place over a period of 4 days. Lyophilised grafts can be stored at room temperature.

Demineralisation - Process whereby the mineral components of bone are dissolved in order to expose bone morphogenetic
proteins. It is only effective for small, non-weightbearing allografts.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP's) - Natural inducers of osteogenesis (bone growth). These proteins, especially BMP-2 or
osteogenin, can induce undifferentiated progenitor cells around them to differentiate into chondrocytes. Bone is formed subsequently
through the natural process of endochondral ossification. BMP is thus the name given to the biologically active components of
normal bone that initiate this process and induce bone formation.

Osteogenesis - Process of bone growth and regeneration. Includes osteoconduction and osteoinduction.

Osteoinduction - Recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells from the surrounding bed, and their differentiation into osteoblasts.
The recruitment and differentiation of cells are modulated by bone morphogenetic proteins.
The activity of BMP does not require viable graft cells. It is present not only in autografts, but also in modified allografts.

Osteoconduction - 3-Dimensional structural scaffold to allow for the ingrowth of capilliaries, perivascular tissue and osteoprogenitor
cells of the host into the graft. The scaffold itself is not osteoinductive and therefore cannot initiate bone formation.

Osteoblasts - Bone cells that develop in the embryonic mesenchyme during early skeletal development. It differentiates from a
fibroblast to function in bone tissue formation. Osteoblasts synthesise collagen and glycoproteins to form the bone matrix.
Later they can become osteocytes.

Osteoclasts (also known as Osteophages) - Multinucleated bone cells associated with the breakdown and reabsorption of osseous
tissue through enzymatic action. They are active in periods of development and growth and in the presence of parathyroid
hormone.They are also known as osteophages.
 
 

  Definitions   and
  Abbreviations

 
 
Definitions
Meaning
     
 
BMP’s
°C
cc
cm
c-
d
DBM
DNA
g
ht
HIV
hrs
ISO
kGy
L
(L)
m
mg
mm
ml
NPC
pcs
PCR
QC
s
μm
xs
See “links” for more abbreviations
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
degree Celcius
cubic centimeter (volume measurement)
centimeter
linked cross linked
diameter
Demineralised Bone Matrix
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
gram
height
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
hours
International Organisation for Standardisation
kiloGray
large
Lyophilised
medium
milligram
millimeters
milliliter (liquid volume measurement)
Non Profit Company
pieces
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Quality Control
small
micron
extra small

 
 

  References
  and
  Publications

 
 
Bone SA has access to a full range of published material on the subject of human allograft bone, other bone
substitutes and bone morphogenetic proteins. Contact our offices at any time to receive publications pertaining
to your particular field of interest or click below.

 
 
Click here to contact us:
info@bonesouthafrica.co.za
 
   
 
 
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